CBSA resources

Briefing paper: Unlocking carbon credits for sanitation, CBSA, 2023

Container-based sanitation guide to implementation (1st edition), CBSA, 2020

CBSA GHG emissions calculator, CBSA 2020

UNC poster presentation: Calculating the climate change mitigation potential of container-based sanitation systems, Lauren H. Trondsen and Kory Russel, CBSA, 2020

Policy brief: Supporting the shift to climate positive sanitation, CBSA, 2020

Taking Container-Based Sanitation to scale: opportunities and challenges, Russel K., K. Hughes, M. Roach, D. Auerbach, A. Foote, S. Kramer, & R. Briceño, Frontiers in Environmental Science, 2019

An integrated approach to the SDGs: acknowledging the interrelation between sanitation and climate change, CBSA, 2019

Global leaders in household CBS services: a comparative analysis, CBSA, 2018

CBS resources

Why it’s time to get behind container-based sanitation, English and French (PDF 1.6Mb) French (CBSA translation), Jessie Coates and Dan Gray, EY

Evaluating the potential of container-based sanitation, World Bank, 2019

The world can’t wait for sewers: advancing container-based sanitation businesses as a viable answer to the global sanitation crisis, EY (Ernst & Young) and WSUP (Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor), 2017

The Political Economy of Sanitation: An Exploratory Study of Stakeholder Incentives in Delivering Sanitation, Zaqout, Mariam D. A., PHD thesis, University of Leeds

Mosan: Combining Circularity and Participatory Design to Address Sanitation in Low-Income Communities, Mijthab, M., Anisie R. & Crespo O. Circular Economy and Sustainability, 2021

A Methodological Approach to the Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential of Container-Based Sanitation Systems, Seitz, D., Masters thesis, ETH Zurich 2021

An evaluation of different provision strategies for scaled-up container-based sanitation, Ferguson C.; Mallory, A.; Hutchings, P.; Remington, C.; Lloyd, E.; Kiogora, D.; Anciano, F.; Parker, A. H2Open Journal, 2021

Evaluating the viability of container-based sanitation in low- income settlements, Dewhurst, Richard & Furlong, Claire & Tripathi, Sabitri & Templeton, Michael & Scott, Rebecca, Waterlines, 2019

Waste-to-Value Sanitation in Kakuma Refugee Camp, UNHCR, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Sanivation, 2020

Piloting ecological sanitation (EcoSan) in the emergency context of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after the 2010 earthquake, A. Kilbride, S. Kramer, and N.Preneta, WEDC Conference, 2013

A cross-sectional survey to assess household sanitation practices associated with uptake of “Clean Team” serviced home toilets in Kumasi, Ghana, Greenland, K., de-Witt Huberts, J., Wright, R., Hawkes, L., Ekor, C., and Biran, A., Environ. Urban, 2016

Container-based Toilets with Solid Fuel Briquettes as a Reuse Product – Best Practice Guidelines for Refugee Camps. Kenya, Sanivation, UNHCR, 2018

Exploring exposure risk and safe management of container- based sanitation systems: a case study from Kenya, Mackinnon, E., Campos, L. C., Sawant, N., Ciric, L., Parikh, P., and Bohnert, K. Waterlines, 2018

Realizing the circular economy for sanitation: assessing enabling conditions and barriers to the commercialization of human excreta derived fertilizer in Haiti and Kenya, Moya, Berta, Ruben Sakrabani, and Alison Parker Sustainability, 2019

Sanitation practices and perceptions in Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya: comparing the status quo with a novel service-based approach, Nyoka, R., Foote, A. D., Woods, E., Lokey, H., O’Reilly, C. E., Magumba, F., et al., PLoS ONE, 2017

Opportunities and limits to market-driven sanitation services: evidence from urban informal settlements in East Africa, O’Keefe, M., Lüthi, C., Tumwebaze, I. K., and Tobias, R., Environ. Urban, 2015

Thermophilic co- composting of human wastes in Haiti, Preneta, N., Kramer, S., Magloire, B., and Noel, J.-M., Water Sanit. Hyg. Dev., 2013

User perceptions of and willingness to pay for household container-based sanitation services: experience from Cap Haitien, Haiti, K. Russel, S. Tilmans, S. Kramer, R. Sklar, D. Tillias, and J. Davis, Environment and Urbanization, 2015

Greenhouse gas fluxes from human waste management pathways in Haiti, Ryals, R., McNicol, G., Porder, S., and Kramer, S., Clean. Prod., 2019

Pit latrines or container-based toilets? A cost–benefit analysis comparing two approaches to improving sanitation access in urban areas of Haiti, Sklar, R., and C. Faustin, Priorise: Copenhagen Consensus Center, 2017

Container-based sanitation: assessing costs and effectiveness of excreta management in Cap Haitien, Haiti, Tilmans, S., Russel, K., Sklar, R., Page, L., Kramer, S., and Davis, J., Environ. Urban., 2015

The SOIL guide to ecological sanitation. Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL), SOIL, Sherburne NY, USA, 2011

Other key resources

Core questions on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene for household surveys: 2018 update, JMP, 2018 (includes CBS as improved sanitation in table 3 on p12)

Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000-2017. Special focus on inequalities, JMP, 2019 (includes CBS as improved sanitation in table A-1 on p82)

Guidelines on sanitation and health, WHO, 2018 (includes CBS in Fact Sheet 8: Urine-diverting dry toilet and container-based sanitation with off-site treatment of all contents in the annex on p181)

Preventing diarrhoea through better water, sanitation and hygiene – exposures and impacts in low- and middle-income countries, WHO, 2014.

Citywide Inclusive Sanitation: a call to action, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Emory University, The University of Leeds, WaterAid, Plan International, and the World Bank, 2017

Citywide Inclusive Sanitation: A public service approach for reaching the urban sanitation SDGs, Schrecongost, Alyse, et al., Frontiers in Environmental Science, 2020

Citywide Inclusive Sanitation – business as unusual: shifting the paradigm by shifting minds, Gambrill, Martin, Rebecca J. Gilsdorf, and Nandita Kotwal, Frontiers in Environmental, 2020

Back-end users: the unrecognized stakeholders in demand-driven sanitation, Murray, Ashley & Ray, Isha., Journal of Planning Education and Research – J PLAN EDUC RES, 2010